2016 State of Twiplomacy: Latin America / Fernando Marquez Lopez

Fernando Marquez Lopez



The following is a review of Twitter (the most widely used social network by public administrations) usage by some Latin American governments, specifically by the Heads of State and their Ministries of Foreign Affairs (MFAs). The countries within the region were selected because:

– their verified accounts are the ones that have the most followers (Mexico, Colombia, Argentina and Venezuela, in that order),
– they are estimated by distinct studies as to have the highest government approval percentage in 2016 (Dominican Republic and Guatemala),[1]
– of the weight they represent by number of active Twitter users (Brazil, being the leader in the continent with 17.97 million as of May 2016),[2]
– or since its President joined Twitter in 2016 (Bolivia).

This review not only considers how prolific or followed such governments can be in their use of Twitter, but the impact and recognition that their posts can have among the users of said social network. In that sense, three aspects are considered: the conversation rate (number of audience comments or replies per post on rate), which signifies the interaction with others, as well as the amplification rate (number of retweets per tweet) and applause rate (number of liked tweets), the latter two implying that their tweets are deemed relevant.


Most followers

The graph below compares the number of followers of Latin American Presidents’ Twitter handles revised in this examination, highlighting in all cases the corresponding Twitter Audit Report, which establishes whether said followers can be considered as real or not.[3]

President’s Twitter Followers (as of January 21st, 2017)

The number of followers of any Twitter user is diminished when measured against the most followed Twitter profile, which belongs to Katy Perry, US pop singer (@katyperry), who has 95,421,771 followers[4] (even considering that only 38% of them are real according to Twitter Audit, equivalent to 37,214,491 accounts).

The Presidents’ Twitter handles reviewed have an average of 73% real followers, being Bolivia’s Evo Morales the one with the highest percentage (94%), and Argentina’s Mauricio Macri the one with the lowest (63%).

In Mexico’s Enrique Peña Nieto case, which is practically in the mean with 74%, the term “PeñaBots” has been coined to designate false users and automated accounts in social networks that only issue positive value judgments to the actions or tweets of Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto (@EPN) and his immediate surroundings, publishing similar remarks to spread government propaganda, generate false trends and marginalize dissident opinions. 1,216,093 accounts on Twitter were consider as such according to a monitoring conducted from January 1st to September 1st, 2016;[5] a similar amount to that referred to by Twitter Audit, which states that 26% of Peña Nieto’s Followers (equivalent to 1,572,130) are fake.

MFAs’ Twitter Followers (as of January 21st, 2017)

With regard to the institutional MFA’s Twitter accounts revised, they have an average of 81% real followers, also being Bolivia´s the one with the highest percentage (94%), and again Argentina’s with the lowest (58%).


Conversation rate[6]

One aspect to highlight is that the sheer size of the audience is no pretext to avoid interacting and avoid being conversational with users. In @katyperry’s case, the percentage of replies in the total of analyzed tweets is 24%.[7] In the contrary, Latin American governments only use Twitter as a one-way broadcasting tool. In the case of the presidents accounts, practically all revised cases have a conversation rate of less than 5% or practically nonexistent, with the sole exception of Guatemala’s Jimmy Morales.

President’s Twitter Conversation Rate (as of January 21st, 2017)

With regard to MFA’s Twitter accounts, the percentage of replies in the total of analyzed tweets of Colombia is almost three times that of its nearest peer, while the rest is equal to or less than 4%, or also practically nonexistent.

MFAs’ Twitter Conversation Rate (as of January 21st, 2017)

Amplification rate [8] & Applause rate[9]

The number of retweets of tweet is diminished when measured against the most popular Twitter remark of 2016 (with 1,392,426 retweets), which came from Spanish gamer and youtuber Rubén “ElRubius” Doblas Gundersen (@Rubiu5), who on August 20th, tweeted “Limonada” (Lemonade) accompanied by a Moyai (type of human rock carving from Easter Island) emoji.[10]

The graphs below compare this most reviewed tweet with those of the of Latin American governments’ Twitter handles revised in this examination.

President’s most retweeted tweet: Amplification & Applause Rate (as of January 21st, 2017)

MFAs’ most retweeted tweet: Amplification & Applause Rate (as of January 21st, 2017)

The most relevant Twitter activity in 2016 by each country reviewed is examined separately in detail below.



The following describes different aspects of Twitter handles of Mauricio Macri (@mauriciomacri), Argentina’s President, and Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto (@CancilleriaARG), the country’s MFA.


Followers 3,641,308 120,870
Real Follower Audit Rate 59%




Following 640 248
Conversation Rate 0% 3%
Most replied to users @Argentina, National Soccer Team (2) @CancilleriaARG (85)
Most mentioned users @todonoticias, local news channel which published a note stating that Macri was going to resign (41 mentions), @mariuvidal, Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires –position held previously by Macri– (27), and @gabimichetti, Vice President of Argentina (19) @SusanaMalcorra, Minister of Foreign Affairs (139), @ONU_es, Official United Nations Spanish account (29), and @CFKArgentina, Macri’s predecessor (23)
Most used hashtags #cambiemos, name of the political alliance that supported Macri’s candidacy for the presidency (104 mentions), #yolovotoamm, used for the closing of Macri’s campaign –literally meaning “I vote for Mauricio Macri”– (48), and #macriconfantino, linking to the exclusive interview given by Macri to Alejandro Fantino, Argentine news anchor (43) #cuestiónmalvinas, referring to the sovereignty dispute of the Falkland Islands (97), #convocatoriapadex (77), and #padex (58), both denoting the country’s Program of Increase and Diversification of Exports
Amplification Rate 89.2% 72.2%
Avg. retweets per tweet 1,131.52 19.10
Listed (added to lists) 6,885 646
Most retweeted users @gcba, Official Twitter of the Government of the City of Buenos Aires, (66), @EmergenciasBA, Emergency Service of Buenos Aires, (15), and @DisfrutemosBA, Tourist promotion of Buenos Aires (10) @SusanaMalcorra (102), @InvestTradeARG, Argentine Investment and International Trade Agency (78), and @CasaRosadaAR, Twitter Handle for the Office of the Executive Power during Cristina Fernández de Kirchner’s Presidency[11]
Applause Rate 89.2% 60.4%
Avg. likes per tweet 1,984.05 24.51
Likes granted 88 450

Most retweeted and favorited tweets

Below is a recount of the utmost relevant events of the country in 2016, according to the most retweeted and favorited tweets.

More than ever I feel great pride for our selection. I hope the joy of seeing the best in the world continues many more years. #DontGoLio

  Conversation (Replies): 934
  Amplification (Retweets): 15,064
  Applause (Likes): 27,739

After his third straight defeat in a final (two Copa America and a World Cup), Lionel “Lio” Messi, frequently considered the best soccer player in the world and qualified as one of the best of all time, shared that he decided to end his trajectory with the National Team, alarming a country that loves the sport. Afterwards he apparently recoiled, with a view to participating in Russia 2018.

Conversation (Replies):
Amplification (Retweets):
Applause (Likes):

Joint communiqué of the member states of OAS on recent events in Venezuela

Conversation (Replies): 53
Amplification (Retweets): 1,312
Applause (Likes): 382

Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, USA and Uruguay express their deep concern about the decision taken by the National Electoral Council of Venezuela to postpone the collection process of the 20% of the electoral roll required to activate the recall referendum.

#Terrorism | Emergency telephone number of the Argentine embassy in Brussels: +32 475751646 – Email: ebelg@cancilleria.gob.ar

Conversation (Replies): 12
Amplification (Retweets): 570
Applause (Likes): 341

Three coordinated suicide bombings occurred in Brussels on the morning of March 22nd, 2016, becoming the deadliest act of terrorism in Belgium’s history, and prompting an emergency response from other governments to offer protection and orientation to their citizens.



The following table includes different aspects of Twitter handles of Evo Morales Ayma (@evoespueblo), Bolivia’s President, and Cancilleria Bolivia (@MRE_Bolivia), the country’s MFA. Morales joined Twitter on April 15th, 2016, taking his username from a phrase said to him by Pope Francis (@Pontifex): “Evo siempre con el pueblo” (Evo always with the people).[12]


Followers 124,523 3,997
Real Follower Audit Rate 94%




Following 5 691
Conversation Rate 0% 0%
Most replied to users @Pontifex_es, Pope Francis (3), and @NicolasMaduro, President of Venezuela (1) Has not had more than 1 interaction per user
Most mentioned users @dilmabr, former President of Brazil (8), and @Pontifex_es (8) @evoespueblo (5), and @diarioeldeber, Bolivian newspaper (2)
Most used hashtags[13] #bolivia (73), #chile (45), #eeuu –#USA– (28) #bolivia (139), #davidchoquehuanca, referring to the Foreign Minister of Bolivia (82), and #ahora –#now– (80)
Amplification Rate 100.00% 32.42%
Avg. retweets per tweet 459.05 6.66
Listed (added to lists) 510 66
Most retweeted users Has not retweeted any tweets @CuidemosAguaBo, community to raise awareness about water care (574), @evoespueblo (70), and @mincombolivia, Ministry of Communication (40)
Applause Rate 100.00% 34.67%
Avg. likes per tweet 450.29 5.41
Likes granted Has not liked any tweets 11

Most retweeted and favorited tweets

Below is a recount of the utmost relevant events of the country in 2016, according to the most retweeted and favorited tweets.

Our admiration and respect for Fidel, the leader who taught us to fight for the sovereignty of the State and the dignity of the peoples of the world.

Conversation (Replies): 325
  Amplification (Retweets): 5,358
Applause (Likes): 5,556

Fidel Castro, Cuba’s former president and leader of the Communist revolution, died on November 26th, 2016. Morales was a close ally of the late Castro.

We condemn the parliamentary coup against Brazilian democracy. We accompany Dilma, Lula and his people in this difficult time. #StrengthDilma

Conversation (Replies): 353
Amplification (Retweets): 4,236
Applause (Likes): 3,742

Brazil’s senate voted on August 31st to oust Dilma Rousseff from the country’s presidency, following an impeachment process that suspended her from office since May 2016. Morales shared her left-wing views.

Bolivia withdraws its confidence to Luis Almagro and demands his resignation

Conversation (Replies): 22
Amplification (Retweets): 243
  Applause (Likes): 82

Luis Almagro, Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS), presented a report at the meeting of the Permanent Council on the situation in Venezuela, stating that there was a rupture of the democratic order in that country. Bolivia is considered a Venezuelan ally.

STATEMENT About the “Coup d’Etat” in #Brasil

Conversation (Replies): 2
Amplification (Retweets): 86
Applause (Likes): 32

Bolivia expressed its deep rejection after knowing the decision of the Brazilian Senate to remove President Dilma Rousseff from office.



The following table includes different aspects of Twitter handles of Michel Temer (@MichelTemer), Mexico’s President, and Ministério das Relações Exteriores (@ItamaratyGovBr), the country’s MFA.


Followers 722,804 151,727
Real Follower Audit Rate 78%




Following 575 787
Conversation Rate 5% 9%
Most replied to users @MichelTemer (171) @ItamaratyGovBr (116), @dilmabr (8), and @GiocondaBrasil (7)
Most mentioned users @UN, Official account of United Nations (41), @petrobras, semi-public Brazilian multinational corporation in the petroleum industry, (27) and @minsaude, Brazilian Ministry of Health (24) @joseserra_, Minister of Foreign Affairs (146), @dilmabr, Temer’s predecessor (98), and @MichelTemer (76)
Most used hashtags #rio2016, referring to the year’s Summer Olympics –which became the most discussed topic on Twitter in 2016–[14] (118), #aovivo –#live– (74), and #cplp –acronym for Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries– (35) #brasil, MFA’s promoted hashtag (125), #periscope (51), and #itamaraty, name by which Brazil’s MFA is known (44)
Amplification Rate 87.9% 62.2%
Avg. retweets per tweet 40.91 7.87
Listed (added to lists) 1,434 1,334
Most retweeted users @Planalto –official workplace of the President of Brazil– (229), @ONUNews_Port –Official news service on the United Nations in Portuguese– (21), and @ONUBrasil –Official profile of the United Nations in Brazil– (8) @Planalto (288), @joseserra_ (95), and @dilmabr (85)
Applause Rate 87.9% 62.1%
Avg. likes per tweet 120.72 11.45
Likes granted 689 1,539

Most retweeted and favorited tweets

Below is a recount of the utmost relevant events of the country in 2016, according to the most retweeted and favorited tweets.

(AI) President Michel Temer decrees official mourning for three days for the tragedy in Colombia. #StrenghtChape

Conversation (Replies): 46
Amplification (Retweets): 1,957
Applause (Likes): 2,194

On the evening of November 28th a flight carrying 77 people, including the staff and players from the Chapecoense Football Association, a Brazilian team commonly known as “Chape”, crashed, leaving 71 people dead. The team was on its way to play the South American Cup Final in Colombia. After its opponent defection and the decision by Conmebol, the association that brings together football federations in South America, Chape was granted the tournament’s championship.

The Olympic selection of #soccer conquers an unprecedented #gold in the country’s historical moment. Time to get back up with the greatness of our #BRA!

Conversation (Replies): 3,372
Amplification (Retweets): 1,757
Applause (Likes): 3,061

Brazil beat Germany in the penalty shootout and won the Olympic gold medal in football, a title the country had never achieved. This was especially significant for the soccer loving country after the 7-1 defeat to Germany two years earlier in the World Cup, which was also played in the Maracaná Stadium in Rio de Janeiro.

The Itamaraty recommends that Brazilians in Turkey contact their relatives in Brazil and avoid circulating on the streets. CONSULAR ALERT

Conversation (Replies): 12
Amplification (Retweets): 343
  Applause (Likes): 320


A coup d’état was attempted on July 15th in Turkey against state institutions, including, but not limited to the government and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, prompting an emergency response from other governments to offer protection and orientation to their citizens.

MFA rejects the statements of the governments of Venezuela, Cuba, Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua and ALBA [Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America] /TCP [People’s Trade Treaty] regarding the internal situation in Brazil.

Conversation (Replies): 47
Amplification (Retweets): 199
Applause (Likes): 187

Dilma Rousseff was suspended since May 12th by Brazil’s Senate from the presidency, which was ill taken by governments allied to her, which considered the motion as a parliamentary coup against the country’s democracy. Rousseff was finally impeached on August 31st.


The following table includes different aspects of Twitter handles of Juan Manuel Santos (@JuanManSantos), Mexico’s President, and Cancillería de Colombia (@CancilleriaCol), the country’s MFA.


Followers 4,738,685 173,238
Real Follower Audit Rate 44%




Following 1,641 981
Conversation Rate 1% 26%
Most replied to users @JuanManSantos (20) @Virgelis_fanvir (7), @douglas025 (7), both of the Colombians who required consular assistance, and @GobCasanare, official account of a state within Colombia (6)
Most mentioned users @PoliciaColombia, Official account of the Colombian National Police (63), @ELTIEMPO, Colombian newspaper which named Santos Person of the Year (46), and @UN (39) @MigracionCol, authority in charge of exercising Immigration Control in Colombia (75), @CancilleriaCol (69), and @Registraduria, National Registry of Civil Status (42)
Most used hashtags #contraelcrimen –#againstcrime–, (97),  #acuerdodepaz –#peaceagreement–, (71), #su00edalapaz (58), and #creoencolombia –#IbelieveinColombia– (58) #plebiscitoenelexterior –#plebisciteabroad– (126), #diplomaciadeportiva – #sportdiplomacy–  (98), #acuerdodepaz (54)
Amplification Rate 95.3% 56.06%
Avg. retweets per tweet 204.26 4.55
Listed (added to lists) 12,205 857
Most retweeted users @EquipoPazGob, official account of the plenipotentiary members delegated by the President at the Table of Conversations of Havana with the Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces –FARC– (14), and @mindefensa, Colombia’s Ministry of Defence (5) @ColombiaNosUne, Internal Work Group attached to the Directorate of Migration, Consular Affairs and Citizen Service, which seeks to link Colombians abroad and make them subjects of public policies (106), @CumbreIberoA, Official Account of the Ibero-American Summit of Heads of State (35), and @JuanManSantos (16)
Applause Rate 95.3% 62.16%
Avg. likes per tweet 344.13 4.96
Likes granted 87 266


Most retweeted and favorited tweets

Below is a recount of the utmost relevant events of the country in 2016, according to the most retweeted and favorited tweets.

This honorable distinction is not for me, it is for all the conflict’s victims. Together we will win the most important prize of all: PEACE

Conversation (Replies): 3,878
Amplification (Retweets): 15,532
Applause (Likes): 25,042

Juan Manuel Santos was recognized on October 7th with the Nobel Peace Prize 2016 for his efforts to end the armed conflict that has endured five decades in Colombia.

I will not give up, I will continue to seek peace until the last day of my mandate, because it is the way to leave a better country for our children.

Conversation (Replies): 3,063
Amplification (Retweets): 10,389
Applause (Likes): 20,307

In a surprising result, Colombian rejected on October 2nd the agreement reached by the government with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC, by its acronym in Spanish) via a plebiscite, adding in the uncertainty of the peace process with the insurgents.

Press release from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay and Uruguay on the situation of Venezuela

Conversation (Replies): 47
Amplification (Retweets): 431
Applause (Likes): 155

On the end of October 2016, the government and the opposition coalition of Venezuela announced the opening of a national dialogue after the intervention of Pope Francis, and as a result had shown signs of reconciliation such as the release of activists and the postponement of a political trial against the president in Parliament. Notwithstanding the foregoing, on November 3rd the opposition warned that it would withdraw from negotiations if the process of dialogue with the government did not result in an early presidential election. Maduro rejected such ultimatum. The relevance for Colombia resides in the border it shares with Venezuela, sections of which have been dispute as recently as in 2015, or even closed in a large part.

President of Ecuador arrives in Cartagena to attend signing of #PeaceAgreement

Conversation (Replies): 4
Amplification (Retweets): 99
Applause (Likes): 63

 Ecuador’s President Rafael Correa was one of the dignitaries that traveled on September 26th to the Colombian city of Cartagena to attend the signing of the peace agreement between the Government and the FARC.


 Dominican Republic

The following table includes different aspects of Twitter handles of Danilo Medina (@DaniloMedina), Dominican Republic’s President, and Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (@MIREXRD), the country’s MFA.

Followers 584,851 47,949
Real Follower Audit Rate 63%




Following 7,780 1,686
Conversation Rate 5% 0%
Most replied to users @sergiocarlo, Dominican presenter and actor resident in the United States who expressed his discontent over the re-election of Danilo Medina (7), and @RobertQuezadaR, Image Director of the City of Santiago (4) @andresnavarrog, Minister of Education of the Dominican Republic (4), and @MiguelVargasM, Dominican Foreign Minister (2)
Most mentioned users @DaniloMedina (83), @margaritacdf, Vice President of the Dominican Republic (56), and @elPLD, Dominican Liberation Party which nominated Medina to the presidency (14) @andresnavarrog (182), @MiguelVargasM (174), and @DaniloMedina (67)
Most used hashtags #elcambioseguro –#TheSafestChange–, motto used by Medina´s presidential campaign (149), #plangobiernopld – #PLDGovernmentPlan– (91), and #elsuresdedanilo –# TheSouth IsWithDanilo–, also used in Medina´s candidacy (76) #rd, acronym for Dominican Republic (170), #cancilleríard –#DominicanRepublicMFA– (135), and #46asambleardoea, used to promote the 46th Regular Session of the General Assembly of the Organization of American States (97)
Amplification Rate 93.81% 49.36%
Avg. retweets per tweet 83.96 24.43
Listed (added to lists) 1,385 208
Most retweeted users @margaritacdf (16), @mabeleishun, part of the team that managed the Twitter account of the presidency and made comments via her personal account in which she said that accredited journalists to the Presidential House messed around both in the corridors and during the activities of the president, (4), and @pamsued, Dominican TV actress, resenter and producer (4) @PresidenciaRD, official Twitter account of the Presidency of the Dominican Republic, (445), @RDCELAC, official account of Pro-Tempore Presidency of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (134), and @MiguelMedinatv, Spokesperson and Director of Communications of the Ministry of Education (128)
Applause Rate 65.32% 49.04%
Avg. likes per tweet 49.94 19.89
Likes granted 2 3,754

Most retweeted and favorited tweets

Below is a recount of the utmost relevant events of the country in 2016, according to the most retweeted and favorited tweets.

Let us start today to dream even higher, work harder and build with more faith the country we want and deserve, together and in peace!

Conversation (Replies): 180
Amplification (Retweets): 1,054
Applause (Likes): 653

President’s New Year Message.

I thank everyone for the congratulations and expressions of affection I received today. It is a privilege to serve a people so warm and friendly.

Conversation (Replies): 233
Amplification (Retweets): 520
Applause (Likes): 1,124

Message of appreciation of the president for the congratulations received on the day of his 64th birthday.

#Today in honor of the Mirabal sisters, every 25 November, International Day of the #EliminationOfViolenceAgainstWomen #NotOneLess

Conversation (Replies): 4
Amplification (Retweets): 197
Applause (Likes): 188

Commemoration of UN’s International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.

[Today] November 6, 1844, the first Dominican Constitution was promulgated in the city of San Cristóbal.

Conversation (Replies): 1
Amplification (Retweets): 179
Applause (Likes): 190

 Commemoration of the promulgation of the Dominican constitution.



The following table includes different aspects of Twitter handles of Jimmy Morales (@jimmymoralesgt), Guatemala’s President, and Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (@MinexGt), the country’s MFA.


Followers 85,830 8,601
Real Follower Audit Rate 93%




Following 1,059 506
Conversation Rate 53% 4%
Most replied to users @patosamperio, Guatemalan blogger (9), @jimmymoralesgt (9), @cabrera_jossy, Morales supporter (8), and @WaltBa, Morales dissenter (8) @VENENO_CRUZ, lawyer and former TV host (4)
Most mentioned users @YouTube (27), @patosamperio (11), and @CanalAntigua, local TV channel (10) @jimmymoralesgt (118), and @GuatemalaGob, News and information from the Government of Guatemala (23)
Most used hashtags #juntosporguate –#TogetherForGuatemala– (40), #campañanegra –#BlackCampaign–, in reference to the Presidential race (9), and #guateesmi –#GuatemalaIsMy– (8) #guatemala (286), #cancillergt –#GuatemalanMFA– (122), and #cancillermorales –#GuatemalanMinisterOfForeignAffairs– (116)
Amplification Rate 57.09% 43.74%
Avg. retweets per tweet 23.58 4.61
Listed (added to lists) 217 163
Most retweeted users @jimmyporguate, official account of Morales campaign for the Presidency (22), @GuateMandaGT, political and social criticism (14), and @Jhfranco9, Guatemalan Congress member (9) @GuatemalaGob (377), @GuatemalaONU, Permanent Mission of Guatemala to the United Nations (151) and @P_Mesoamerica, integration and development mechanism for Mexico, Central America, Colombia and the Dominican Republic (80)
Applause Rate 70.60% 42.43%
Avg. likes per tweet 47.99 4.24
Likes granted 1,261 2,312

Most retweeted and favorited tweets

Below is a recount of the utmost relevant events of the country in 2016, according to the most retweeted and favorited tweets.

A people awake and very attentive, is a suitable and necessary companion. Blessings!

Conversation (Replies): 151
Amplification (Retweets): 379
Applause (Likes): 884

Just two days after Jimmy Morales assumed the presidency, civil society called for a peaceful rally on January 16th by way of an exhibition of civil organization with a view to showing that it would be following closely process transformation of the Guatemalan government.

The People and Government of Guatemala will never forget Fidel Castro for being a friend who lent his hand when we needed him most.

Conversation (Replies): 282
Amplification (Retweets): 350
    Applause (Likes): 605

Mourning message concerning the death of Fidel Castro.

For information of Guatemalans in #Ecuador we enable the number of the Emb Glory of Troche +593 99 808 6504.

Conversation (Replies): 0
Amplification (Retweets): 68
Applause (Likes): 35

An earthquake of magnitude 7.8 in the Richter scale happened in the coastal zone of Ecuador, leaving more than 600 dead.

Our solidarity with the people and government of # Belgium for the regrettable and condemnable terrorist attacks of today

  Conversation (Replies): 0
Amplification (Retweets): 60
Applause (Likes): 58

Message of solidarity with the Belgian people in regard to the terrorist acts perpetrated in Brussels on March 22nd.



The following table includes different aspects of Twitter handles of Enrique Peña Nieto (@EPN), Mexico’s President, and Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores (@SRE_mx), the country’s MFA.


Followers 6,046,654 486,293
Real Follower Audit Rate 74%




Following 286 521
Conversation Rate 0% 0%
Most replied to users @SChecoPerez, Mexican F1 Driver (2 replies). Has not had more than 1 interaction per user.
Most mentioned users @gobrep, official account of the Government of the Republic (149 mentions), @gobmx, account related to the unique government portal (73), and @mexico, country’s Official Account (52). @ruizmassieu, former Minister of Foreign Affairs –replaced on January 4, 2017– (225), @EPN (63) and @gobmx (59).
Most used hashtags[15] The Hashtags most used were #rio2016 (20 mentions) and #reformaenergética –# EnergyReform–, in referral to opening up the sector to competition from foreign oil companies (19) #méxico (384), #comunicadosre            –#– (222), and #guíadelviajero (179)
Amplification Rate 96.40% 77.03%
Avg. retweets per tweet 662.39 22.01
Listed (added to lists) 10,757 2,646
Most retweeted users @PresidenciaMX, Office of the President of the Republic (49 retweets), @yosoymexicano, governmental social media campaign to promote the country (37), and @alelagunes, Coordinator of National Digital Strategy (4). @ruizmassieu (257), @PresidenciaMX (60) and @EPN (58).
Applause Rate 96.40% 77.13%
Avg. likes per tweet 569.55 18.25
Likes granted 24 1,421

 Most retweeted and favorited tweets

Below is a recount of the utmost relevant events of the country in 2016, according to the most retweeted and favorited tweets.

Mission accomplished: we have him. I want to inform Mexicans that Joaquín Guzmán Loera has been captured.

Conversation (Replies): 26,833
Amplification (Retweets): 80,451
Applause (Likes): 66,949

Known as “El Chapo Guzmán” (“Shorty Guzmán”), considered the most powerful drug trafficker in the world by the United States Department of Treasury, and ranked by Forbes magazine as one of the most powerful people in the world from 2009 to 2011, Joaquín Guzmán was recaptured by Mexican marines and Federal Police after having escaped from prison for a second time.

I repeat what I said personally, Mr. Trump: Mexico would never pay for a wall.

Conversation (Replies): 8,233
Amplification (Retweets): 47,970
Applause (Likes): 52,876

Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump arrived in Mexico City on August 31st to meet with President Enrique Peña Nieto to address a number of issues, including the construction of the border wall between the two countries.

#MFA announces change of vote on preservation of cultural heritage in East Jerusalem. #MFADispatch

Conversation (Replies): 49
Amplification (Retweets): 274
Applause (Likes): 198

Mexico’s MFA announced on October 17th that it would change its vote to abstention in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) resolution on the preservation of the cultural and religious heritage in East Jerusalem, as well as the removal of its envoy before the organism.

Today is celebrated #DayOfTheDead, a beautiful tradition originated in pre-Hispanic times, which makes us proud of our roots.

Conversation (Replies): 6
Amplification (Retweets): 273
Applause (Likes): 256

Commemoration of a recognized Mexican tradition.



The following table includes different aspects of Twitter handles of Nicolás Maduro (@NicolasMaduro), Venezuela’s President, and Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores (@vencancilleria), the country’s MFA.


Followers 3,005,559 229,784
Real Follower Audit Rate 82%




Following 112 419
Conversation Rate 0% 3%
Most replied to users Has not replied to anyone @DrodriguezVen (50), @NicolasMaduro (19), @blancaePSUV (4), and @Hanthonycoello (4)
Most mentioned users @DecisionesFM, official account of a governmental radio show (5), @s (3), and @MirafloresFM, official account of governmental radio station (3) @NicolasMaduro (610), @DrodriguezVen, Venezuelan Minister of Foreign Affairs (454) and @evoespueblo (17)
Most used hashtags #envivo –#live– (22), #domingoconmaduro –#SundayWithMaduro–, Maduro’s weekend TV show (13), #encontactoconmaduro –#InContactWithMaduro– Maduro’s TV Show (2) and #periscope (2) #nota –#note– (522), #venezuela (341), and #ahora –#now– (152)
Amplification Rate 3.5% 70.19%
Avg. retweets per tweet 1,652.38 36.55
Listed (added to lists) 15,498 930
Most retweeted users @VTVcanal8, official account of Venezuelan TV station (277), @PresidencialVen, Presidential Press (259), and @tmaniglia, Director of Presidential Press (240) @DrodriguezVen (269), @NicolasMaduro (80), and @PresidencialVen (65)
Applause Rate 3.5% 70.16%
Avg. likes per tweet 607.78 12.27
Likes granted 51 183

Most retweeted and favorited tweets

Below is a recount of the utmost relevant events of the country in 2016, according to the most retweeted and favorited tweets.

The BCV sent me the three new coins that will come into circulation this week as a complement to the Mafia Coup… Let’s Go Out With Everything…

Conversation (Replies): 650
Amplification (Retweets): 4,588
Applause (Likes): 1,804

The Central Bank of Venezuela notified that starting December 15th, six new banknotes and three coins would be added gradually to the current monetary cone (group of coins and banknotes legally circulating in the country) to make the payments system more efficient, help commercial transactions and minimize the costs of production, replacement and transfer of monetary species.

I have decided that all the money that we are recovering from the mafias will go directly to the Fund for the development of CLAP… Let’s Go Out With Everything…

  Conversation (Replies): 569
Amplification (Retweets): 4,445
Applause (Likes): 1,766

Local Committees for Supply and Production (CLAP) are the parallel food distribution system of the Venezuelan government.

Min. @DrodriguezVen: Venezuela will continue to be a state part of #Mercosur, we support the norms and institutionality of #Mercosur.

Conversation (Replies): 88
Amplification (Retweets): 671
Applause (Likes): 273


Due to the non-compliance of 112 resolutions and almost 300 commercial and democratic parameters required to integrate the regional bloc, Venezuela was officially suspended on December 2nd from the Southern Common Market (Mercosur). The country rejected the notification and called it a coup d’état, and its MFA warned that it would continue to participate in the block with voting rights.

Chancellor @DrodriguezVen: Will it be revenge of President Macri to beat a woman?

14 Dec 2016

Conversation (Replies): 108
Amplification (Retweets): 655
Applause (Likes): 219


Venezuelan Foreign Minister Delcy Rodríguez attended a meeting of the foreign ministers of the Mercosur bloc in Buenos Aires to which she had not been invited. She stated that she was beaten by a police officer on her arrival on December 14th at the Argentine Foreign Ministry and by an official inside the building and assured that it was a personal revenge of the president Mauricio Macri, referring to a disagreement between the two of them at the Mercosur summit in December 2015.


[1] Deutsche Welle. “Ranking Popularity of Latin American Presidents.” 17 August 2016. Retrieved 21 January. 2017, from http://www.dw.com/es/ranking-de-popularidad-de-presidentes-latinoamericanos/g-19481216. Dominican Republic with 73% and Guatemala by 61%.

[2] Statista. “Countries with Most Twitter Users 2016.” Statista. N.p., May 2016. Retrieved 21 January. 2017, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/242606/number-of-active-twitter-users-in-selected-countries.

[3] TwitterAudit (https://www.twitteraudit.com) takes a random sample of 5,000 Twitter followers for a user and calculates a score for each follower based on number of tweets, date of the last tweet, and ratio of followers to friends, determining whether any given user is real or fake.

[4] Trackalytics. “The Most Followed Twitter Profiles.” Trackalytics. January 21,2017. Retrieved 21 January. 2017, from http://www.trackalytics.com/the-most-followed-twitter-profiles/page/1/

[5] Nelson. “EPN accumulates 82 million critiques in social networks between January and September.” Insurgente Press. September 13, 2016. Retrieved 21 January. 2017, from http://insurgentepress.com.mx/acumula-epn-82-millones-de-criticas-redes-sociales-entre-enero-septiembre

[6] Percentage of replies in the total of analyzed tweets.

[7] Twittonomy. “@katyperry Profile.” Twittonomy. 21 January 2017. Retrieved 21 January, 2017, from http://www.twitonomy.com/profile.php?sn=katyperry

[8] Proportion of the user’s tweets retweeted by others.

[9] Proportion of the user’s tweets favorited by others.

[10] Leslie Berland. “#ThisHappened in 2016.” Twitter. December 6, 2016. Retrieved 21 January. 2017, from https://blog.twitter.com/2016/thishappened-in-2016. @Rubiu5 required his followers to retweet his remark in order to take part in a raffle of videogames and consoles.

[11] @CasaRosada

[12] https://twitter.com/evoespueblo/status/721004628771528704

[13] An official hashtag is #MarParaBolivia (#SeaForBolivia), referring to a dispute between Chile and Bolivia for the latter’s access to the Pacific Ocean.

[14] Leslie Berland, op cit. For more information on this, refer to Elaine Filadelfo. “#The #Rio2016 Twitter data recap.” Twitter. August 22, 2016. Retrieved 21 January. 2017, from https://blog.twitter.com/2016/the-rio2016-twitter-data-recap

[15] Other Hashtags used are official, like #SRE (MFA), #ComunicadoSRE (MFA Dispatch or Communique) and #MéxicoGlobal (referring to Foreign Policy).

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